“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos.
At issue is the TMT's planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea's peak rises above the bulk of our planet's dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.
Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.
Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea's fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands' inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.
Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii's shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.
The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.
26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates
[A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.
[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
[C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.
[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.
27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to
[A] its geographical features.
[B] its protective surroundings.
[C] its religious implications.
[D] its existing infrastructure.
28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because
[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.
[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.
[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.
[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.
29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy
[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.
[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.
[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.
30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of
[A] severe criticism.
[B] passive acceptance.
[C] slight hesitancy.
[D] full approval.
26. 答案【B】the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干中的关键词Queen Liliuokalani的remark定位到第一段的第一句，所indicate的内容是在第一段的第二句话，意思是观星者是在Hawaiian社会中最受尊重的成员。正确选项B的the importance of astronomy是原文star watchers were among the most esteemed members的总结概括，in ancient Hawaiian society是原文的原词出现。干扰项A的historical role属于原文信息的曲解，选项C的regrettable decline未提及，过度推理，选项D不是in her time，是她评论ancient的观星者。
27. 答案【A】its geographical features.
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干中的大写字母Mauna Kea，以及关键词ideal astronomical site定位到第二段But后面的内容。But后面说Mauna Kea是世界上最有力量的望远镜home。本题目问的是原因，定位到本段最后一句，这里提到Mauna Kea的顶峰高于大部分的浓密大气层。选项A中的geographical features就是地质特色的意思，属于同义替换。干扰项B的受保护的周边环境未提及，是常识性干扰;选项C的宗教暗示根据本段首句worship进行干扰，不在定位句里;选项D现有的基础设施未提及。
28. 答案【B】it reminds them of a humiliating history.
解析：本题目属于原因细节题。根据题干关键词the construction of the TMT以及opposed by some locals定位到第四段第二句，这里提到a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation，对曾经主权国家遭占领的痛苦提醒。选项B中的remind 是原文的原词复现，a humiliating history(令人耻辱的历史)是对the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation 的同义转化及总结概括。
29. 答案【C】may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
解析：本题目属于细节推断题。根据题干定位到第5段，关键词progress in today’s astronomy再第五段中没有。此种情况下，考虑段落中心，即本段的段首，段尾及转这句。先看首句无答案，看本段尾句提到，或许那就是我们探索星际空间的原因，好像会回答有关我们自己及我们真正祖先的最原始回答。选项C首先may是对原文as if的解读，uncover 同义替换answer，the origin of Hawaiian culture是原文ourselves and our true ancestral homes的同义转化。干扰项A的dreams本段中没有，干扰项B的Hawaiian culture本段有提及，但未指出across the world，干扰项D的soften hostility属于过度推断。
30. 答案【D】full approval
解析：第一段第二句 Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today.意思是，可悲的是，夏威夷现在的天文学不太妙。所以，对于现在夏威夷天文学不太妙的处境，作者用了一个sadly来形容，明明白白地表达了他的蓝瘦香菇。而夏威夷现在不太妙的处境具体指什么?在下一句清楚地说明了Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos意思是我们要搞个巨牛的望远镜，你们居然不同意!所以两句结合一块，作者的态度就明白了，他是支持建望远镜的。在最后一段的最后一句里也有作者态度的线索 There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.意思是说有人跑到你们那儿去，接受你们的文化遗产，去看星星看月亮，你们为毛不欢迎?咳咳，正经点儿说，就是用了no reason和cannot双重否定既强调又强调，还带点儿不可置信地赶脚说夏威夷人应该欢迎每一个到他们那儿去研究天文，并且欣赏他们的文化遗产cultural heritage的每一个人everyone。具体到这篇文章，他们的文化遗产在第五段和第一段都有说，就是天文研究，而每一个人当然应该包括这些想建天文望远镜的人。所以作者的态度旗帜鲜明，就是全力支持。所以正确答案是D。
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